Monday December 15, 2008
Bring your ID card, pencil and pen
NO calculators or other electronic devices are permitted
Lectures: 10 (Oct 23) to 19 (Dec 2) plus 20 (review, Dec 1)
PLUS: key concepts from Lectures 1-9
Text Chapters: 17-21, plus key concepts from Chapters 11-16
Readings: Key findings of Palmer et al. 2004 (Figure 3), Pryer et al. 2004 (Figure 1), Burleigh & Matthews 2004 (Figure 5), Soltis & Soltis 2004 (Figure 1), and Judd & Olmstead 2004 (Figure 1); all only to the level discussed in class.
- Multiple choice (3-5 possible answers; choose the best one): ~5-10% of exam
- Fill-in-the-blank (1 to several words per blank): 30-40% of exam
- Short answer essay questions (~100-200 words, +/- diagrams): 50-60% of exam
- Total of ~120-150 points
Key Terms, Concepts & Questions:
(most of the key terms and concepts from the first half of the course should be kept in memory)
- Adaptation, fitness, natural selection
- Adaptations of successive groups of "plants" to life on (dry) land; did they get any help along the way?
- Adaptations to pollination and seed dispersal by different groups of animals, wind or water in different groups of plants
- Aerobic decomposition and what organisms do it
- Anaerobic decomposition and what organisms do it
- Ancient vascular (and almost vascular) plants: Aglaophyton, Cooksonia, Zosterophyllum, Rhynia, Psilophyton and the lycophytes
- Anthocerophyta: what are they, when, examples?
- Aquatic fertilization, and which plants do it
- Basal angiosperms, monocots, (eu-)dicots: what are they, how do they differ, age, examples?
- Bioaccumulator: what does this mean, examples, importance?
- Biggest (most massive, tallest) and oldest trees: Ontario, Canada and the World? What is the provincial tree of Ontario? Its history?
- Bog formation, ecological and economic importance, threats
- Boreal forest = taiga: what, where and why?
- Broadleaved deciduous forest: what, where and why?
- Bryophyta versus "bryophytes": what are they, when, examples?
- Bulb versus corm: differences, examples?
- Calamites, Lepidodendron, Psaronius, Archaeopteris: what are they, and when did they form forests?
- Canadian forests and woods, and forestry issues
- Carbon sink: what does this mean, and what "plants" have the potential to be one?
- Ceratophyllum, Amborella, Aristolochia, water lilies and magnoliids as ancient angiosperms: which is supported by the DNA data as most ancient living angiosperm?
- Coal age plants: examples, when?
- Coniferous forest: what, where and why?
- Crops, medicines: examples
- Darwin's abominable mystery: what is it, why was it such a puzzle to him, and what is a possible explanation?
- Double fertilization: what it means, and which plants have it
- Economic and ecological importance of bryophytes, cycads, conifers, ...
- Embryophytes = Kingdom Plantae to our text
- Endemic, sympatric, allopatric
- Endomycorrhizae, ectomycorrhizae, the fungi involved, and the plants involved
- Epiphytes, epiliths, terricolous: meaning, examples?
- Equisetales (= Equisetophyta = Sphenophyta): what are they, when, examples?
- Eudicots: important groups, examples
- Eusporangiate, leptosporangiate: what are they and what plants have these?
- Evolution of the seed; evolution of the carpel; evolution of the flower - examples
- Fiddleheads (= circinate vernation): what groups of plants have this?
- Flora versus vegetation; threatened flora and threatened habitats?
- Gametophyte, sporophyte; what they produce and which groups of plants have which as the dominant life-form
- Gene pool
- Gigantopterids, oleanane, and their possible significance to angiosperm evolution
- Gnetophytes: morphological and chemical evidence conflicting with DNA sequence data on their place in plant evolution
- Gondwana (= Gondwanaland), Laurasia: what are they, where, age, examples of plant groups?
- Gymnosperms: [pteridosperms], Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta; ages, examples; what does recognition of the phylum Gnetophyta to monophyly of Coniferophyta?
- Hepatophyta = Marchantiophyta: what are they, when, examples?
- Heterosporous versus homosporous; significance; examples?
- Horsetails are good for cleaning pots, but not for cooking: Why?
- Index of Atmospheric Purity: meaning, calculation, importance?
- Inflorescence; examples of particular plant groups with characteristic inflorescences (e.g., Poaceae have ____; Asteraceae have _____; Apiaceae have ____; Araceae have _____; Fagaceae and Salicaceae have _____)
- Insect versus wind pollination, and how that has affected flower morphology and plant diversity
- Lepidodendrales: what are they, when, examples?
- Leptoids and hydroids versus sieve cells / sieve tube elements, tracheids, and vessel elements (see pp. 360-361 and 516-523)
- Lichens (and bryophytes) and air pollution: chemistry, impacts, uses?
- Lignin: what is it, where is it found, what groups of plants have it?
- Living fossils: 3 examples from gymnosperms
- Lycopodiaceae, Selaginellaceae, Isoetaceae: what are they, when, examples?
- Lycopodiophyta = Lycopophyta: what are they, when, examples?
- Macroevolution, microevolution, and an example of each from the course
- Magnoliophyta = Anthophyta: what are they, when, examples?
- Microphyll, megaphyll, how they differ, and what groups of plants have them
- Mixed forests (Great Lakes - Saint Lawrence, Acadian): what, where and why?
- Monocots: important groups, examples
- Monoecious and dioecious; examples, significance?
- Monophyletic, paraphyletic, polyphyletic, and an example of each from the course
- Multiple generations in a seed; what ploidy is the storage tissue in gymnosperm seeds versus most angiosperm seeds?
- Needle-like (linear), awl-shaped, and scale-like leaves in conifers; needles in fascicles (or not); persistent (evergreen) versus deciduous: which groups have which?
- Numbers of plant groups (very generally): which phyla, families are most diverse, most important?
- Ovaries: superior (flowers hypogynous), inferior (flowers epigynous), or in-between (flowers perigynous), and which is ancestral versus derived?
- Peat: what is it, uses and ecological importance?
- Peltate versus overlapping (= imbricate) cone scales, fleshy cones, arils: examples?
- Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae, Auracariaceae, Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae: characters, examples, mycorrhizae, distribution, importance
- Pistils: simple versus compound, and which is ancestral or derived?
- Plate tectonics
- Pollination drop: what is it, what does it do, where would you find it?
- Progymnosperms: what are they, when, examples?
- Protracheophytes: what are they, when, examples?
- Psilotales (= Psilotophyta)
- Pteridophyta versus "pteridophytes": what are they, when, examples?
- Pteridosperms: what are they, when, examples?
- Rhyniophyta: what are they, when, examples?
- Root versus a stem: what is/are the difference(s)?
- "Saprophytic angiosperms" (see p. 437) and what they REALLY are
- Secondary growth (requires a ______ cambium), and what plants have it
- Secondary reduction (or simplfication): examples, reasons?
- Seeds: parts, generations, and food reserves (what part are we eating in a pine nut, a peanut, a rice grain?)
- Species, speciation
- Sphagnum ion exchange mechanism: its function and ecological importance
- Sporangium (-ia), megasporangium, microsporangium, what they produce, and which plants have them
- Stele, protostele, siphonostele, eustele, what they do, and which plants have them
- Stomata: What are they, and which groups of plants have them, or do not?
- Swimming sperm, and which seed plants have them
- Symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and 5 examples from the course: rhizobacteria, Frankia, and 3 examples of cyanobacteria in symbiosis with plants; what plants?
- Synapomorphy, symplesiomorphy, autapomorphy
- Systematics, taxonomy, nomenclature
- Temperate grassland: what, where and why?
- Trilete spores: what are they and what makes them?
- Tundra: what, where and why?
- Water and nutrient relations of bryophytes, and how this affects their distribution
- Zosterophyllophyta: what are they, when, examples?
- Zygotic meiosis, gametic meiosis, sporic meiosis, and an example of each from the course
I hope to add some example questions in the next few days, as Part II of the review.