Biology 3466b  List of Concepts
At the end of the course, you will
be expected to have a basic understanding of each of these concepts.
In contemporary parlance, these are your studentcentered learning outcomes.
You are therefore encouraged to do whatever it takes to master these concepts.
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"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" TD "Nothing in evolution makes sense except in the light of genetics" MAL 
α as the probability of type I error Absolute fitness Adaptive landscapes Additive alleles Additive variance Allopatric speciation Allozygosity Allozyme electrophoresis Allozyme patterns 2 alleles 3 alleles monomeric enzyme dimeric enzyme HW equilibrium HW disequilibrium Altruism Anagenesis Analogy Anisogamy Anode Arithmetic mean Asexual reproduction Assortative mating Autozygosity Averages as probabilities 
β as the probability of type II error Balance model of variation Bateman's model Bateson's significance Biogeography Biological species Blending inheritance Bottleneck Breeding value Buri's experiment 
Cathode Central dogma of molecular biology (and Germ Plasm Theory) Cepia nemoralis Χ^{2} Chance error Chromogenic substrate Cladogenesis Classical model of variation Common garden Complete dominance Components of variance Critical value of Χ^{2} 
Δp as a measure of evolution in response to... drift migration mutation selection Dependency of drift on the variance of _ Degrees of freedom (Χ^{2}) Deme DeVries's significance Differential reproductive success Dimeric enzyme allozyme patterns Diploid Disassortative mating Discrete variation Dizygotic twins DNA Dobzhansky's significance Dominance = perception Codominance vs incomplete dominance Dominance variance Drift Duplication (gene) 
Effective population size (N_{e}) as a function of sex ratio historical Electropherogram Electrophoretic mobility Electromorph Environmental variance Enzyme Epistasis Equilibrium (<p>) dynamic static stable unstable trivial Evolution 
F, F_{IS}, F_{ST}, F_{IT} Females choose Fertility Fecundity Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural selection Fisher's significance Fitness as an average as a probability Inclusive Fitness coefficients Fixation Average time to Probability of Fixation index Founder effect 
Galton's significance Gamete genotype Gametic disequilibrium Gametic fitness Gel electrophoresis Gemmules Genecentric view of fitness Gene flow effect on F statistics Genetic variance Genotypic variance Genotypic value Genotype Germ line cells Gradualism Group selection Growth rate as fitness 
Hamilton's rule Haploid Hardy and Weinberg (HW) HardyWeinberg equation Harmonic mean Heritability Abuse and misuse Broadsense Determination by selection Determination from correlation Different from geneticallybased Importance of determining from a genetically homogeneous population Narrowsense Realized Shortcomings Heterostyly Heterozygosity Concept as an indicator of genotypic variance and polymorphism in real populations observed predicted reduction due to inbreeding or nonrandom mating <H> Heterozygote advantage disadvantage Heterozygous Homologous Homozygote Homozygous Hybrid zone 
Inbreeding as opposed to nonrandom (assortative) mating coefficient Inclusive fitness Individual as target of selection Individuals do not evolve Inheritance of acquired characters Intermediate inheritance Introgression Isoenzyme electrophoresis 
Johannsen's beans  significance  
Kimura's significance  
Lamarck’s 3 evolutionary theses Lamarckian evolution "Lamarckians" Lek paradox Levels of selection Linkage disequilibrium Load Balancing Genetic Mutational Segregational Substitutional

Males compete Marginal fitness and adaptive landscapes and overdominance Markov approach to modelling drift Mayr's significance Mean fitness Mendel's notions of genetics "Mendelian" Dogma Meristic character Metric character Migration and species integrity rate Monads Monomorphic Monozygotic twins Morgan as a "Mendelian" Multiallelic adaptive landscapes Multilocus inheritance Multiple alleles as a normal state of things as an indicator of genotypic variance Mutation rate (μ) Mutational load

Natural selection as a circular argument Darwin's postulates Neutral Theory Evidence Heterozygosity at equilibrium Homozygosity at equilibrium Probability of fixation Probability of monomorphism Time to fixation Time to loss NilssonEhle's red wheat Nonrandom (assortative) mating as distinct from inbreeding similarity to inbreeding Normal distribution Nucleotide Null allele

Obligate sexual reproduction Orthogenesis Overdominance 

Pangenes Pangenesis Pearson: "Biometricians" Pedigree use in determining inbreeding coefficient use in determining relationship coefficient Percent recurrence Phenotype as target of selection Phenotypic value Phenotypic variance Phyletic Phylogenetic Polyacrylamide gel Polygenic inheritance Polymorphic Polymorphism concept as an indicator of genotypic variance <P>_{95} <P>_{99} Population as the unit of evolution fitness size Effective Pressure Migration Mutation Selective Primula  primrose heterostyly Protein Punctuated equilibria Purifying selection 
Qualitative variation Quantitative inheritance Quantitative trait loci Quantitative variation 
Sampling error Selectability of reproductive success Selection coefficient differential Directional Disruptive Purifying regimes against completely dominant allele against completely recessive allele in favour of heterozygote against heterozygote Stabilizing Sex ratio and N_{e} Sexual conflict Intralocus Interlocus Sexual selection Simpson's significance Slope of the midparentoffspring graph Small population Inherently Somatic cells Speciation Allopatric Parapatric Peripatric Sympatric Spontaneous generation Standard normal deviate Stebbins's significance SSCP Subdivided population Supergene Survival of the fittest 
RAPD RFLP Random genetic drift Rare recessive alleles abundance in heterozygotes as neutral Recessive alleles Effect of inbreeding on _ Recombination and linkage disequilibrium Relationship Calculation from pedigrees Relative fitness Response to selection Reversion rate (ν) Runaway selection


θ  Significance in neutral evolution Target of selection Threshold character Time to fixation as a function of drift Truncation point Twin studies Type I error Type II error 
Underdominance Unequal frequencies in the sexes

V_{A}, V_{D}, V_{E}, V_{I}, V_{P} Variable Variance in fitness Viability

Wahlund effect Wallace's significance Weismann's Germ Plasm Theory Wright's equation Wright's significance 
X  Zscore 
Y 
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