Falls Efficacy Scale (FES)

BioPsychoSocial Assessment Tools for the Elderly - Assessment Summary Sheet

Test: Falls Efficacy Scale (FES)

Year: 1990

Domain: Biological

Assessment Tool Category: Mobility

Variations/Translations: Modified Falls Efficacy Scale, Falls Efficacy Scale- International (FES-I). Available in several languages.

Setting: Clinical

Method of Delivery: Self-administered questionnaire

Description: The FES is a questionnaire assessing the confidence level individuals have in performing daily activities without falling. These activities include: taking a bath or shower, reaching, walking, preparing meals, etc. This tool is targeted to the elderly who might have fears of falling which might affect performance of activities.

Scoring/Interpretation: The FES is a 10 item scale where each item is rated on a scale of 1-10. A score of 10 signifies no confidence in these activities; a score of 1 indicates confidence. Out of a total score of 100, a score of 70 or above indicates the individual has a fear of falling.

Time to Administer: Generally, FES takes less than 10 minutes.

Availability: Available online

Software: N/A

Website: http://www.fallpreventiontaskforce.org/pdf/FallsEfficacyScale.pdf

Quantitative/Qualitative: Quantitative

Validity (Quantitative): The tool has been shown to correlate well with measures of balance and gait. The FES can predict falls in the future and can predict future declines in functional capacity. It has been shown to be sensitive to changes in fear following an intervention directly targeting fears of falling (no statistics reported).

Reliability (Quantitative): The FES has good test-retest reliability (ICC=0.96).


Tinetti, M.,Richman, D.,& Powell, L.(1990).Falls efficacy as a measure of fear of falling. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological and Medical Sciences, 45, 239-43.

Yardley, L., Beyer, N., Hauer, K., Kempen, G., Piot-Ziegler, C., & Todd, C. (2005). Development and initial validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-international (FES-1). Age and Aging, 34, 614-619.

Comments: N/A