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Some Reading Material
Allegre, C-J., and Michard, G., 1974 Introduction to Geochemistry.
Geophysics and Astrophysics Monographs, D. Reidel Publishing
Co., 142 p.
Anderson, R.N., 1986. Marine Geology - A Planet Earth Perspective.
Wiley and Sons.
Berner, R.A., 1999. A new look at the long-term Carbon cycle. GSA Today,
v. 9, no. 11, p. 1-6.
Berner, E.K. and Berner, R.A., 1987 The Global Water Cycle. Prentice
Hall, N.J., 397p.
Berner, E.K. and Berner, R.A., 1996 Global Environment. Prentice
Hall, 376p.
Berner, R.A. and Caldeira, K. 1997. Opinion: the need for mass
balance and feedback in the geochemical carbon cycle.
Geology, 25, 10, 955-956.
Berner, R.A., 1999. A new look at the long-term Carbon cycle.
GSA Today, 9, 11, 1-6.
Bice, K.L. et al. 1997. Continental runoff and early Cenozoic
bottom-water sources. Geology, 25, 10, p. 951-954.
Broecker, W.S., 1999. What if the conveyor were to shut down? Reflections
on a possible outcome of the Great Global experiment. GSA Today, Vol. 9, no. 1, 1-7.
Broecker, W.S. and Peng, T.S., 1983. Tracers in the Sea. Eldigio
Bolin, B. et al.1987. The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic change
and Ecosystems. Scope 29, Wiley.
Brown, G.C. and Musset, A.E., 1993. The Inaccessible Earth. Chapman
and Hall, 276 p.
Brownlow, A.H., 1979 Geochemistry, 2nd ed.. Prentice Hall, N.J.,
Devoy, R.J.N., 1987. Sea surface Studies: a Global view, Croom Helm.
Dolgoff, A. 1996. Physical Geology. D.C. Heath and Co., 628.p.
Drever, J., The geochemistry of Natural Waters, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1982, 388pp.
Drever, James I. (Ed.), Sea Water: Cycles of the Major Elements,
Dowden, Hutchington & Ross, Inc., 1977, 244pp.
Heezen, B.C. and Hollister, C.D., 1971. The Face of the Deep.
Oxford University Press.
Horne, R.A., Marine Chemistry, Water and the chemistry of the
hydrosphere, Wiley-Interscience, 1969, 568pp.
Elderfield, H Hawkesworth, C.J., Greaves, M.J., and Calvert, S.E.,
1981 Rare Earth element geochemistry of oceanic
ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments. Geochim.
Cosmochim. Acta, 45, 513-528.
Faure, G., 1991 Principles and applications of inorganic
geochemistry. a comprehensive textbook for geology students.
MacMillan, N.Y., 626p
Comment- QE515.F28
Gill, Robin, 1989 Chemical Fundamentals of Geology. Harper Collins
Academic, 292 p.
Hawkesworth, C. and Ellam, R., 1989 Chemical fluxes and wedge
replenishment rates along recent destructive plate margins.
Geology, 17, 46-49
Henderson-Sellars, A. and Robinson, P.J. 1986. Contemporary
Climatology, Longman.
Kadko, D., 1996 Radioisotopic studies of submarine hydrothermal
vents. Reviews of Geophysics, 34, 3, 349-366
Kennett, J., 1982. Marine Geology. Prentice Hall.
Liss, P.S. and Crane, A.J. 1983. Man-made Carbon Dioxide and
Climatic Change - A Review of Scientific Problems. Geo Books,
Lovelock, J.E. 1979. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth.
Oxford University Press
Menzies, R.J. et al., 1973. Abyssal Environment and Ecology of
the World Oceans. Wiley.
Milliman, J.C., 1974. Marine Carbonates.
Morris, R.C., 1993 Genetic modelling for banded iron formation of
the Hamersley Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.
Precambrian Research, 60, 243-286
Comment- sustained volcanic periods produced S-macroband
deposition of chert-carbonate-silicate BIF with shale, gradually
returning to the dominant hematite - magnetite -chert BIF as
volcanic activity waned. During volcanic periods the normally
high capacity of sunlight to precipitate ferric iron directly
by photolytic oxidation of ferrous iron and by photosynthetic
production of oxygen was modified by turbitidy in the
atmosphere, dust, and in the water, colloids from reactive
ash. Surface precipitated ferrric hydroxyoxide redissoved in
the presence of decaying organic materialin the subphotic
zone, and led to precipitation of ferrous carbonates and
silicates when solubilities were exceded. volcanism increased
nutrients and organic matter despite decreased sunlight
leading to an absence of ferric oxides in the S macrobands.
Very low oxygen to anoxic atmosphere, a much higher leve of
MORB activity, the presence of photsynthetic plankton, the
absence of silica secreting organisms, deep sea water
temperature higher than 20 degrees
Murray, R.W. Buchholtz ten Brink, M.R., Jones, D.L., Gerlach, D.C.,
and Russ III, G.P., 1990 Rare earth elements as indicators of
different marine depositional environments in chert and
shale. Geology, 18, 3, 268-271
Open University Course Team, 1992 Seawater. its composition,
properties and behaviour. Open University and Pergamon Press.
Open University Course Team, 1989 The Ocean Basins. their structure
and evolution. Open University and Pergamon Press, 171 p.
Open University course team, 1989 Ocean Chemistry and Deep-sea
sediments. Open University and Pergamon Press, 134 p.
Pinet, P.R. 1992. Oceanography. West Publishing Co.
Purton, L. and Brasier, M. 1997. Gastropod carbonate delta 18O
and delta 13C values record strong seasonal productivity and
stratification shifts during the late Eocene in England.
Geology, 25, 10, 871-874.
Robbins, L.L. et al. 1997. Temporal and spatial distribution of
whitings on great Bahama bank and a new lime mud budget.
Geology, 25, 10, 947-950.
Rona, P.A. et al. 1983. Hydrothermal Processes at Seafloor
Spreading Centers, NATO Conference Series IV, Marine Sciences,
Vol 12, Plenum Publishing Co.
Smith, D.G., ed. 1989. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Earth
Sciences, Cambridge University Press, 496 p.
Stowe, K., 1983. Ocean Science (2nd Ed.). Wiley.
Taylor, S.R. and McLennan, S.M., 1985 The Continental Crust. its
composition and Evolution. Blackwell Scientific Pub., Oxford,
Taylor, S.R. and McLennan, S.M., 1981 The composition and evolution
of the continental crust. rare earth element evidence from
sedimentary rocks. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, A 301,
Vitouseck, P.M. et al., 1997 Soil and ecosystem development across
the Hawaiian Islands. GSA Today, 7, 9, 1-8.

               Plate Tectonics
1996 Recent Advances in Plate tectonics. What students should know.
GSA Ann. Meet. Abst. and Programs, Denver, 28, 7, 222.
Bott, 1993 Modelling the plate-driving mechanism. Journal Geolgoical
Society, 150, 5, 941.
Buck, W.R. et al. 1997. Controls on extrusion at mid-ocean ridges.
Geology, 25, 10, p. 935-938.
Condie,K., 1989 Plate tectonics and crustal evolution. Pergamon
Press, College Dept., Elmsford, N.Y.
Comment- QE511.C66
Cox, A., 1989 Plate tectonics, how it works. Oxford University
Press, 392p.
Cox, A. and Hart, R.B., 1986 Plate Tectonics; now it works.
Blackwell Sci. Pub., 392 p.
Davies, G.F., 1992 On the emergence of plate tectonics. Geology, 20,
11, 963-966.
Comment- oceanic crust is negatively boyant only after 20 Ma;
condition of negative boyancy being reached at the subduction
zone would occur if mantle was 50C hooter than present, and
as recently as .9-1.4 Ga ago; plume tectonic is not an
alternative to plate tectonics. mantle plumes arise from a
lower, hot thermal boundary layer, whereas plates arise in
the upper, cold thermal boundary layer. Plumes and plates are
thus complementary, rther than being alternatives.
DeMets, C., et al., 1990 Current plate motions. Geoph. Jour. Int.,
101, 425-478.
Kearey, P. and Vine, F.J., 1990 Global Tectonics. Blackwell Sci
Pub., 320p.
Kearey, P. and Vine, F.J, 1990 Global tectonics. Blackwell Sci.
Pub., 320p.
Olson, P., 1989 Mantle convection and plumes. James, D.E., ed., The
Encyclopedia of solid earth geophysics, Van Nostrand
Reinhold, New York, 788-802.
Comment- QE501.E58
Park, R.G., 1988 Geological structures and moving plates. Chapman
and Hall, NY.
Comment- QE601.P345
Pavoni, N., 1992 Rifting of Africa and pattern of mantle convection
beneath the African plate. Tectonophysics, 215, 1/2, 35-53.
Comment- continent wide radial extension centred on equatorial West
africa; mega plume rising beneath Africa (see Irvine); mid
ocean ridges surrounding Africa are located between (50-60
degrees away) the up and down welling zones
Rona, and Richardson, E.S., 1978 Early Cenozoic global plate
re-organization. Earth Planetary Science Letters, 40, 1-11.
Sheridan, R.E. discuss. Anderson, D. reply, 1994. Superplumes or
supercontinents?. Geology, 22, 8, 763-765.
Comment- discussion of links between mantle and core processes;
Cretaceous Pangea breakup associated with high sea level; the
Carboniferous with assembly and low sea level. The Jurassic
"quiet zone" is actually a period of frequent reversals.
Changing subduction zone configurations are the most
plausible cause of both plate reorganization and TPW.
Turcotte, D.L. and Kay, S.M., 1992 On the coupling between plate
tectonics and mantle convection. EOS Am. Geoph. Union Spring
Sup., 54p.
Vlaar, N.J and Cloetingh, S.A.P.L., 1984 Orogeny and ophiolites.
Plate tectonics revisited with reference to the Alps, in
Zwart, H.J., Tobi, A.C., and Haartman, P. eds. Ophiolites and
Ultramafic Rocks. Geologie and Mijnbouw, 63, 159-164.
Von Heune, R. and Scholl, D.W., 1991 Observations at convergent
margins concerning sediment subduction, subduction erosion,
and the growth of continental crust. Reviews of Geophysics,
29, 279-316.
Watkins, J., 1992 Geology and geophysics of continental margins.
American Association Petroleum Geologists, 419p.
Ziegler, P.A., 1992 Plate tectonics, plate moving mechanisms and
rifting. Tectonophysics, 215, 1/2, 9-34.

'Popular' articles on plate tectonics and the ocean floor have
periodically been published in 'The Scientific American':

Biology Associated with Hydrothermal Vents on the Sea-floor

Tunnicliffe, V. 1992.  Hydrothermal vent communities of the Deep Sea.
American Scientist, 80, 336-349
Lutz, R.A., and Kennish, M.J. 1993.  Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent
Communities: A review.  Reviews of Geophysics, v31-.211-242.

Physiography of the Seafloor
Pratson, L.F. and Haxby, W.F. 1997.  Panoramas of the Seafloor.  Scientific
American, June 1997, v.276, # 6, pp.82-87.

Early References on Seafloor Spreading
Cox, A., Dalrymple, G.B., and Doell, R.R. 1967.  Reversals of the Earth's
magnetic field. Scientific American, v. 216, pp.44-54. Reprinted in 'Plate Tectonics
and Geomagnetic Reversals' ed.  A. Cox, W.H. Freeman, 1973.
Heirtzler, JR. 1968.  Sea-floor spreading.  Scientific American, Dec. 1968
Reprinted in 'Continents Adrift and Continents Aground', W.H. Freeman, 1976.

    Metal Deposits

Bonatti, E. 1978.  The origin of metal deposits in the oceanic lithosphere.
Scientific American, v. 238, pp.54-61
Rona, P.A. 1986.  Mineral Deposits from Sea Floor Hot Springs.  Scientific
American, v.  254, pp. 84-93

    Tectonics on the Seafloor

Macdonald, K. C., and Luyendyk, B. P. 198 1. The crest of the East Pacific Rise.
Scientific American, v. 244, pp. 100- 1 16.
Francheteau, J. 1983.  The Oceanic Crust.  Scientific American. v. 249, pp. 1 14-129
Bonatti, E., and Crane, K. 1984.  Oceanic Fracture Zones.  Scientific American,
(May 1984, pp.40-51.
Bonatti, E. 1987.  The Rifting of continents.  Scientific American, v. 256, pp.96-103.
White, R.S., and McKenzie, D.P. 1989, Volcanism at Rifts.  Scientific American,
v. 261, pp. 62-71.


Figure 1. Plate Tectonics.


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