University of Western Ontario

Gold Mineralization related to Extensional Tectonics, SW USA

Field Trip to Nevada, Arizona and SE California, 2004&2006

L to R: Mike, Miya, Ryan, Micha, Julie, Andrea, Amy, Emily, Sarah, Jordan, Lindsay, Jeff, Norm, (Bill, Phil, Alex)

hoovernorm&mica.jpg  - Trip Leaders Dr. Norm Duke and Dr Micha Pazner at the Hoover Dam.

                                                                      Many thanks to Ryan and Ian Power for contributed photographs.

 E-mail:  wrchurchabc@uwoabc.ca (remove the abc);     WEB: http://publish.uwo.ca/~wrchurch/

 

2008 Feb 22 - March 1 Excursion,

 

               Meriem, Norm, Ruikin, Jeffrey, Sonya, Brad, Christine, Alaina
(Click to enlarge)

 

        

      Oatman Mine

                                                         Briggs Gold Mine         

                       M&S                   Camping                   M&R              Amargosa Chaos    Spring Flowers    Briggs Gold Mine

        This website contains links to airphotos, topographic maps, satellite images, geologic maps, diagrams, and photographs, relevant to the joint Geology/Geography field trip to SE California in February, 2004/2006. It is not intended as a scientific treatise on extensional tectonics, nor has it yet achieved the status of a fully descriptive field trip guide. It may nevertheless be useful however to others contemplating a field trip to examine the extensional geology and gold deposits of the SW USA.

        Airphotos and topo maps were prepared using "EXPERTGPS" .   Waypoints shown on the airphotos and topo maps were determined also using "EXPERTGPS" and are given in WGS 84 UTM coordinatesThe excursion can also be 'flown' with GOOGLE EARTH, and for this purpose a  .kmz file "USA SW.kmz" with placemarks for locations relevant to this excursions can be downloaded from " http://instruct.uwo.ca/earth-sci/fieldlog/Google_Earth/ "

      The aim of the field trip is to examine the physical effects of the 'extensional geology' of the Colorado River corridor (detachment faults, mylonites, breccias, etc) and the Death Valley region (turtle-backs, Armagoza 'chaos'); secondly, to ground-truth Aster satellite data in the southern Chocolate Mountains;  and thirdly, to examine the temporal and physical relationship of  extensional tectonics and gold mineralization in the Oatman and the Whipple, Buckskin, Cargo Muchacho,  Black, and Chocolate Mountain regions of Nevada, Arizona and California.  Secondary objectives were to examine the Algodones Dune belt, the Pliocene-Pleistocene Painted Canyon section (San Andreas Fault) near Mecca Hills,  the recent obsidian domes of the Salton Sea,  the hot springs of the Hesperia region, and the Ubehebe Volcanic Crater of the northern Death Valley region.
 

     Keywords:  Las Vegas, Lake Mead, Hoover Dam, Mojave, Laughlin, Newberry detachment, Oatman, Parker Dam, Cattail, Whipple, Buckskin, Swansea, Clara Peak, Boise, Lincoln Ranch, Yuma, Picacho, Cargo Muchacho, Chocolate Mountains, Black Mountains, Vitrifax, American Girl, Padre Madre, Hedges, Mesquite, Tumco, Winterhaven, Orocopia, Algodones Dunes, Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge, Calipatria, Obsidian Butte, Rock Hill, Painted Canyon, Mecca Hills, San Andreas, Joshua Tree, Whitetank, Juniper Flats - Bowen Ranch hot springs, Saline Valley, Panamint Range, Mesquite Springs,  Ubehebe, Death Valley, Natural Bridge, Armagoza 'chaos', Valley of Fire, petroglyphs, extension, detachment, dip domains, accomodation zone, breccia, mylonite, brittle/ductile, breakaway, core complex, .Landsat, Aster, gold, iron oxides, chlorite, kyanite, Colorado Plateau, Basin and Range.

                       Campsites sites used during this field trip

DAILY PROGRAMME

                        Day 0  - Fly to Las Vegas from Detroit                               
                                airport_University.jpg - relative location of the McCarren Airport and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
 
                              Univnevadalasvegas.jpg - Campus map of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas.

                        Day 1 - Laughlin Newberry detachment; Oatman Gold

                        Day 2  - Whipple Wash detachment

                        Day 3  - Buckskin Mountains (Clara Peak/Swansea detachments)

                        Day 4 - Hess Gold Mine (Chocolate/Gatuna & Picacho detachments);

                        Day 5 - Cargo Muchacho (Vitrifax, American Girl)

                        Day 6  - Mesquite Mine; Chocolate Mountains

                        Day 7  - Algodones Dunes; Salton Sea (Obsidian Butte); Painted Canyon; Joshua Tree National Park;

                                      (Bowen Ranch Hot Springs, option); Barstow

                        Day 8  - Death Valley 'Chaos' and Turtlebacks; (Ubehebe Vocanic Crater, option); Valley of Fire (Red Rock Canyon)

                        Day 9 - Las Vegas; return to London

 

                                                               

DAY 1 - Las Vegas to Parker Dam via Oatman and Laughlin (Newberry detachment)

   Overnight - Buckskin Arizona State Park south of Parker Dam

Detachment fault-fold geometry and deep-crustal structure, Colorado extensional terrane, based on

CALCRUST and reprocessed industry seismic lines

 

From Durning et al., 1998 http://www.gis.usu.edu/docs/data/nasa_arc/nasa_arc97/SDSU/LaCuesta.pdf  Fig 5

 

 

                                                      Chronology of events in the Colorado extensional corridor:

        

                                                       Ma

                                                        12              |               |

                                                        13              |               |

                                                        14              |               |

                                                        15              |               |                |              Footwall clasts in Breccias

                                                        16              |               |                |              Megabreccias

                                                        17              |        Extension        |

                        Miocene                  18              |               |           Peak Slip

                                                        19      Volcanism       |                |    

                                                        20              |               |                |

                                                        21              |               |

                                                        22              |               |

                                                        23              |       Early mylonitization                               

                                                        24              |

 

      To see an animation by McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005) of the extensional history of the SW USA click:

 

  http://www.gsajournals.org/gsaonline/?request=get-document&doi=10.1130/GES00016.1#i1553-040x-1-3-147-f1001;

  click QuickTime animation link  dx.doi.org/10.1130/GES00016.1.s1   at the bottom of the last page of the article.

MOST RECENT PUBLICATIONS

http://www.nbmg.unr.edu/staff/pdfs/NCREC.pdf

CENOZOIC EVOLUTION OF THE NORTHERN COLORADO RIVER EXTENSIONAL

CORRIDOR, SOUTHERN NEVADA AND NORTHWEST ARIZONA

JAMES E. FAULDS1, DANIEL L. FEUERBACH2*, CALVIN F. MILLER3,

AND EUGENE I. SMITH4

4Department of Geoscience, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154

Utah Geological Association Publication 30 - Pacific Section American Association of Petroleum Geologists Publication GB78

The Geologic Transition, High Plateaus to Great Basin - A Symposium and Field Guide, The Mackin Volume, 2001.

 

ABSTRACT

    The northern Colorado River extensional corridor is a 70- to 100-km-wide region of moderately to highly extended crust along the eastern margin of the Basin and Range province in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It has occupied a critical structural position in the western Cordillera since Mesozoic time. In the Cretaceous through early Tertiary, it stood just east and north of major fold and thrust belts and also marked the northern end of a broad, gently (~15 deg) north-plunging uplift (Kingman arch) that extended southeastward through much of central Arizona. Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata were stripped from the arch by northeast-flowing streams. Peraluminous 65 to 73 Ma granites were emplaced at depths of at least 10 km and exposed in the core of the arch by earliest Miocene time.

    Calc-alkaline magmatism swept northward through the northern Colorado River extensional corridor during early to middle Miocene time, beginning at ~22 Ma in the south and ~12 Ma in the north. Major east-west extension followed the initiation of magmatism by 1 to 4 m.y., progressing northward at a rate of ~3 cm/yr. The style of volcanism changed during the course of east-west extension. Eruptions of calc-alkaline to mildly alkaline mafic to intermediate magmas predated extension. Calcalkaline to mildly alkaline mafic, intermediate, and felsic magmas were prevalent during major extension. Tholeiitic and alkalic basalts were then erupted after significant block tilting. The most voluminous volcanism occurred in early Miocene time and was accompanied by mild north-south extension. Belts of east-west extension bordered the region to both the north and south in early Miocene time. Large-magnitude east-west extension engulfed nearly the entire region in middle Miocene time, beginning in most areas ~16 Ma and ending by ~9 Ma. Tilt rates commonly exceeded 80o/m.y. during the early stages of east-west extension.

     Although less voluminous than that in the early Miocene, volcanism generally spanned the entire episode of extension south of Lake Mead. Thus, thick volcanic sections, as opposed to sedimentary rock, accumulated in many growth-fault basins. The northward advancing magmatic front stalled, however, in the Lake Mead area along the southern margin of the southern Nevada amagmatic gap. Thus, Tertiary sections in the Lake Mead area are dominated by sedimentary units, including alluvial fan, continental playa, and lacustrine deposits. During middle Miocene extension, strain was partitioned into a west-dipping normal-fault system in the north and an east-dipping system in the south. The two fault systems and attendant opposing tilt-block domains overlap and terminate within the generally east-northeast-trending Black Mountains accommodation zone. Major east-west extension was contemporaneous on either side of the accommodation zone. The west-dipping normal fault system in the north is kinematically linked to major strike-slip faults along the northern margin of the corridor, where a complex three-dimensional strain field, involving both east-west extension and north-south shortening, characterized the middle to late Miocene.

     The transition between the Colorado Plateau and the Basin and Range is unusually sharp along the eastern margin of the northern Colorado River extensional corridor and is marked by a single west-dipping fault zone, the Grand Wash fault zone.

     Subhorizontal, relatively unfaulted strata on the Colorado Plateau give way to moderately to steeply east-tilted fault blocks across the Grand Wash fault zone. Topographic and structural relief across this boundary developed during middle Miocene extension and was established by 9 Ma. The location and abruptness of the Colorado Plateau-Basin and Range transition in this region may have been controlled by an ancient north-trending crustal flaw, inasmuch as it follows a diffuse boundary between Early Proterozoic crustal provinces.

 

Julia M. G. Miller (Department of Geology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235) and Barbara E. John

(Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82070-3006)1999. Sedimentation patterns support seismogenic low-angle normal faulting, southeastern California and western Arizona. GSA Bulletin, v. 111, p. 1350–1370. 

ABSTRACT

Miocene synextensional strata flanking the Chemehuevi and southern Sacramento Mountains in southeastern California and western Arizona

 indicate deposition during seismically active low-angle normal faulting. These data complement existing structural, isotopic, and fission-track

studies, which show that the regionally developed Chemehuevi-Sacramento detachment-fault system was initiated and allowed movement of

 the hanging wall over more than 18 km within the seismogenic regime at moderate to low angles of dip ( 30). Individual faults within the

 detachment-fault system are corrugated parallel to the east-northeast transport direction, resulting in broad mullion structures (50–550 m

 amplitude and 1.5–10 km wavelength). Slip occurred along the rooted fault system between ca. 23 and 12 Ma; the average slip rate was

 7–8 mm/yr during peak tectonic extension from ca. 19 to 15 Ma.

Tertiary strata preserved in tilted hanging-wall blocks are between 2 and 3 km thick. Mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks (ca. 23 to 18.5 Ma)

 at the base of the section constitute 40% to 50% of most basin fills. Alluvial-fan conglomerate, sedimentary breccia, and megabreccia

(somewhat >15.5 to somewhat <13.9 Ma) dominate the unconformably overlying sedimentary succession. Decreasing dip angles in

progressively younger strata through this volcanic-sedimentary succession, and angular unconformities between units, form corroborative

evidence with geochronologic data and show that these strata accumulated during extension. Sedimentary facies and clast types indicate

proximal deposition in small basins distributed along east-northeast–trending regions that parallel and overlie synforms in the underlying

corrugated Chemehuevi-Sacramento detachment fault. The composition, thickness, and distribution of these volcanic and sedimentary strata

support their accumulation near a gently dipping normal fault. Clast types show an inverted stratigraphy recording erosion to progressively

deeper structural levels in the source region. Emplacements of thick (<750 m) megabreccias (rock-avalanche deposits), derived from both the

hanging wall and the footwall, were likely triggered by earthquakes. Tilted and displaced conglomerate and megabreccia (younger than

ca. 15 Ma) contain footwall clasts and indicate breaching of the detachment fault, erosion of the footwall, and late movement on the gently

dipping Chemehuevi-Sacramento detachment fault at the Earth's surface.

These data show that the gentle dip and corrugated shape of the Chemehuevi-Sacramento detachment-fault system, when it was seismically

 active and allowed movement at and near the Earth's surface, controlled the location and fill of basins during progressive extension.

Stratigraphic, structural, and thermal data therefore corroborate and challenge the assumption that low-angle normal faults are aseismic.

             Day 1 route -  Laughlin, Oatman, Buckskin Mountain State Park

Stop 1 - Laughlin - the Newberry detachment

Laughlin6ap.jpg - Airphoto of Laughlin, California, UTM: 721354, 3894849 (bridge across the Colorado at Laughlin)

Laughlin7ap.jpg - Airphoto of the approximate location of the Newberry extensional fault, south of Laughlin, UTM: 714830, 3889136

ian_newb1.jpg - red hematized upper plate rocks overlying cataclastic lower plate mylonitic gneiss

ian_newb3_bron - cataclastic lower plate mylonitic gneiss (Cuddfan Bronwen)

Oatmansilvercreekturnoff.jpg -  Airphoto of the turnoff to Oatman from Hwy 95 in Laughlin, UTM: 720 321, 3889 337
(+ location of Home Depot for Coleman butane bottles and Safeway for food)

EXPLANATION: Model of Crustal Extension w. truncation of upper plate normal faults by gently inclined detachment fault.  (Durning et al., 1998, Fig 6)

Stop 2 - Oatman Goldroad Mine - gold associated with a large epigenetic quartz vein

GEOLOGICAL MAPS
Oatmangeol.jpg - Geological map of the Oatman area. Durning, W.P. and Buchanan, L.J., 1984 The Geology and Ore Deposits of Oatman, Arizona.
 Arizona Geol. Soc. Digest, v. 15, Fig. 2.

Oatmangeolleg.jpg - Geological legend for the above map Oatmangeol.jpg

Oatman1.jpg - Topo map of the Oatman - Goldroad Mine area

OatmanAP.jpg - Airphoto of the Oatman - Goldroad Mine area;  Oatman = 738 765 E, 3879 028 N

OatmangoldroadmineAP.jpg - Airphoto of the auriferous quartz-vein mine site, 739 675 E, 3880 713 N

ian_oat_mine.jpg - old adit to the gold mine

ian_oat_wrc.jpg - ditto

060224_03_oatmanm.JPG 06/04/2001 - the explanation

060224_02_oatmanm.JPG 06/04/2001 - the pose (l to r; Norm, Bronwen, James, Ian, Duncan, Lindsay, Chad, Jeff)

                         CAMPING - 1) Topock or 2)  Buckskin State Park

               1) Topock

Topock1.jpg  - Topo map of Topock

Topock2.jpg Topo map of Park Moabi in Topock

topockAP.jpg  Airphoto of Park Moabi in Topock

                2a) Buckskin 2b) Cottonwood

http://www.pr.state.az.us/Parks/parkhtml/buckskin.html

Buckskin Mountain State Park is located on Arizona Highway 95, about 12 miles north of Parker.

The River Island unit is one mile north of Buckskin Mountain State Park at UTM 763498, 3793965 11S

buckmntStprktopo.jpg   - Topographic map locating the Buckskin Mountains State Park

BuckStPk1AP.jpg -  Airphoto of the Buckskin Mountains State Park south of Parker Dam at UTM 763498, 3793965 11S

(If the BMSP is full try cattailAP.jpg -  Cattail State Park, west off hwy 95 north of Parker Dam at UTM: 761377,3805845 11S)

Day 2 - Whipple Mountains
Overnight  - Buckskin Arizona State Park south of Parker Dam

Whipple Wash

          The main stop of interest in Whipple Wash is Stop 6 of Spencer et al. 1987. fig 2. - whipspenf2a.jpg

          Access to Whipple Wash: cross the Colorado River at the Parker Dam; turn left (North) at UTM 763211, 3797746 onto the Black Meadow Landing road; turn left (West) off the Black Meadow Landing road at UTM 755453, 3800899; bear left at UTM 753215, 3802703; arrive at Whipple Wash at UTM 750194, 3804715

                Models for Extensional Faulting in the Colorado River Corridor

See: http://www.colorado.edu/geolsci/courses/GEOL3120/metamorphiccomplexes.pdf  for an explanation of Metamorphic Core Complexes and
 Detachment Faults. Site has maps and photos of the Whipple Mountain and Buckskin-Rawhide detachments. This site is maintained by  Karl Mueller,  Dept of Earth Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

The following images are taken from Durning, W.P. et al., 1998 http://www.gis.usu.edu/docs/data/nasa_arc/nasa_arc97/SDSU/LaCuesta.pdf 

Whipplefig3.jpg  - Opposite polarity tilt patterns in extensional terranes (During et al., 1998, Fig 3)

Fault_fold geometry Col Extens. Corridor - Fold geometry of the Colorado Extensional Corridor (Durning et al., 1998, Fig 5)

Fault_fold geometry Col Extens. Corridor - enlarged image

Crustal Extension w. truncation of upper plate normal faults by gently inclined detachment fault.  (Durning et al., 1998, Fig 6)

                Accomodation Zones

Map, Colorado Extensional corridor (Durning et al., 1998, Fig 4)

Accomodation zone (Mesquite Mine)  (Durning et al., 1998, Fig 9)

                Zones of dip-direction reversal

Whipplefig1_Meaddipzones.jpg - Tertiary dip domain map of the southern Basin and Range  (During et al., 1998, Fig 1)

                 Break-Aways

The following two images are taken from: Dorsey, R. http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~rdorsey/Detach.html (Dorsey and Becker 1995)

Sections illustrating concept of 1st and 2nd 'breakaways'  

Geological  map, Whipple Mountains, Primary & Secondary 'breakaways'

          GEOLOGICAL MAPS

Core complexes of the Whipple Mountain and Chemehuevi regions - From Dorsey, R. at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~rdorsey/Detach.html (Dorsey and Becker 1995)

Geol. map Whipple Mountains; geology of Whipple Wash - From: Mueller, K. at http://www.colorado.edu/geolsci/courses/GEOL3120/metamorphiccomplexes.pdf

whipspenf2b.jpg - Geological map, Gene Wash Quad., Spencer et al. 1987. fig 2, stops B2-B5 (georegistered and gridded)

whipspenf2a.jpg - Geological map, Whipple Wash Quad., Spencer et al. 1987. fig 2, stops B6-B10 (georegistered and gridded)

********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

whipspenf3.jpg - Geological map, Upper Whipple Wash, Spencer et al. 1987. fig 3, stops B9, B10

whipspenf3grida.jpg - Geological map, Upper Whipple Wash, Spencer et al. 1987. fig 3, stops B9, B10 (georegistered and gridded)

whipuppertopo.jpg Topo map corresponding to whipspenf3.jpg geological map

whipupperAP.jpg   Airphoto corresponding to whipspenf3.jpg geological map

          AIRPHOTOS AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

Topo map of Parker Dam area - Copper Basin Reservoir.  -

Airphoto Parker Dam - Copper Basin region

Airphoto region east of Copper Basin reservoir (Parker Dam landing strip, top centre-right of the photo)

Airphoto of traverse to Copper Basin reservoir  - intercalated strips of Upper Plate Oligocene - Miocene Gene Canyon and Copper Basin Formations and Precambrian crystalline rocks

Airphoto of location UTM: 756 672, 3797 302  -  Upper Plate rocks dipping SW; Precambrian basement exposed in topographic lows; Copper Basin Reservoir to lower left

Airphoto of Whipple Wash area of the Whipple Mountains  - Whipple Wash region

whipuppertopo.jpg Topo map corresponding to whipspenf3.jpg geological map

whipupperAP.jpg   Airphoto corresponding to whipspenf3.jpg geological map

          PHOTOGRAPHS

whipplegroup.jpg    -  Geology student group

whipplegeog.jpg     - Geography group on mylonites below the Whipple detachment (top of the photo)

whippleklippe3.jpg -  View across Whipple Wash from south to north; high hills upper plate rocks

whippleklippe1.jpg  - View across Whipple Wash from south to north; high hills upper plate rocks

whippleklippe6.jpg  - Upper Plate rocks, Whipple Wash

whippleklippe2.jpg  - View across Whipple Wash from south-east to north-west

whippleklippe4.jpg -  View across Whipple Wash from south-east to north-west

whippleklippe5.jpg  - isolated mass of  upper plate rocks sitting on mylonitic gneiss, Whipple Wash

gneissxenolith.jpg  - Gneiss xenolith in diabase intrusion, Whipple Wash

whipple2ryan.jpg    - Whipple Wash seen from the West looking down the wash

whippleryan.jpg      - Traverse up Whipple Wash begins

whipple3ryan.jpg - High up in the Upper Plate, on the south side of Whipple Wash

060225_01_whipple.JPG 06/04/2006 - view of the lower end of Whipple Wash
060225_04_whipplemyl.JPG 07/04/2006 - retrogressively mylonitized basement gneisses below the Whipple Wash Detachment
060225_05_whipplemyl.JPG 07/04/2006 -  complex shear fabrics in the basement gneisses below the Whipple Wash Detachment
060225_06_whipplestal.JPG 08/04/2006 -  collapsed cavity in the the Tertiary sed/volc sequence with hanging stalagmites
060225_07_whipple.JPG 08/04/2006 - view from the NW side of Whipple Wash towards the SE, with the Bowmans Wash quartz monzodiorite in the lower ground of the middle foreground, and the fanglomerate/volcanic succession occupying the more distant mountains
060225_08_whippleunconf.JPG 08/04/2006 - Tertiary volcanic rocks unconformably overlying the Bowmans Wash quartz monzodiorite, c. 748500E, 3802500 (see geological map whipspenf2a.jpg , NW of point B7)
060225_09_whipple.JPG 08/04/2006 - inlier/window of Bowmans Wash basement rocks (centre-right) within Tertiary fanglomerates and volcanic rocks
ian_whip_burros.jpg - Tertiary fanglomerates; note burros on the scree slope (eye-sight test!)
ian_whip_palm.jpg - solitary native palm tree in Whipple Wash

  DAY 3 - Buckskin Mountains - Swansea and Clara Peak
        Overnight at Buckskin Mountain State Park south of Parker Dam

       The Buckskin Mountains will be entered from the direction of Bouse, and will encompass stops C4, C5, C2, and C3 of Reynolds and Marshak, 1987

Maps from Spencer, J.E. et al., 1987 showing location of stops C1 to C8:

whipspenf1.jpg -  Geology map, Rawhide Mountains, Spencer, J.E. et al. Field-trip Guide, Fig 1.

Airphoto of Bouse

Topo, Bouse Highway 72 to Highway 95

swangenap.jpg - airphoto showing locations of stops C2 to C8 in the Buckskin Mountains, Spencer, Reynolds and Marshak, 1987, p. 360-362

Airphoto, Buckskin Montains - airphoto showing road from Bouse to Swansea

s&rclara_peakf14cgeol.jpg - Stratigraphic columns for the Swansea - Copper Penny area, Fig 15; Cross section A-A', Fig 16

Maps from: Spencer, J.E. and Reynolds, S.J., 1989b.
s&rclara_peakf4bgeol.jpg - Geologic map of the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains, Fig 4b (West)


s&rclara_peakf4ageol.jpg - Geologic map of the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains, Fig 4a (East)


s&rclara_peakf3bgeol.jpg - Geologic map of the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains showing locations of mines, Fig 3b (East)


s&rclara_peakf3ageol.jpg - Geologic map of the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains showing locations of mines, Fig 3a (West)

Stop C4 - airphoto showing locations of stop C4 in the Buckskin Mountains, Spencer, Reynolds and Marshak, 1987, p. 361

Stop C5 - airphoto showing locations of stop C5 (Clara Peak) in the Buckskin Mountains, Spencer, Reynolds and Marshak, 1987, p. 361

s&rclara_peakfolf5.jpg - Geologic map of the Clara Peak area showing NW-trending folds of lower plate mylonitic foliation, Fig 5.

060226_10_clareliz.JPG 08/04/2006 - blue camouflaged lizard in an area of abundant chrysocolla covered surfaces, Stop C5
060226_11_claraunconf.JPG 08/04/2006 - contact between Tertiary fanglomerates and retrograde mylonitized tectonites, Clara Peak
060226_12_clarased.JPG 08/04/2006 -  Tertiary fanglomerates overlying retrograde mylonitized tectonites, Clara Peak

Stop C2 - airphoto showing locations of stop C2 in the Buckskin Mountains, Spencer, Reynolds and Marshak, 1987, p. 360

Stop C3 - airphoto showing locations of stop C3 in the Buckskin Mountains, Spencer, Reynolds and Marshak, 1987, p. 361

060226_14_swanseastud.JPG 09/04/2006 - Group photograph at the Swansea mine site
060226_15_swanseato NE.JPG 09/04/2006 - view to the NE from the Swansea mine site

Rio Vista

Maps from: Spencer, J.E. and Reynolds, S.J., 1989c.

s&rriovistaf29geol.jpg  -  Geological map and cross section of the area west of the Rio Vista mine


s&rriovistaf28geol.jpg  -  Geologic map of the Rio Vista-Billy Mack area

GEOLOGY MAPS

Geol. Map. Arizona, Parker area http://www-glg.la.asu.edu/%7Esreynolds/azgeomap/azgeomap_home.htm

Geological Map of Arizona, Steve Reynolds

 

Geol. Map Arizona, Swansea Mine region - http://www-glg.la.asu.edu/%7Esreynolds/azgeomap/azgeomap_home.htm

Geological Map of Arizona, Steve Reynolds

 

Geol. Map composite Parker-Swansea

 

s&rclara_peakf14bgeol.jpg - Geologic map of the Swansea - Copper Penny area, Fig. 14b


s&rclara_peakf14ageol.jpg - Geologic map of the Swansea - Copper Penny area, Fig. 14a


s&rclara_peakf9geol.jpg - Geologic map of the Clara Peak area

 

Maps from: Spencer, J.E. and Reynolds, S.J., 1989b.
s&rclara_peakf4bgeol.jpg - Geologic map of the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains, Fig 4b (West)


s&rclara_peakf4ageol.jpg - Geologic map of the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains, Fig 4a (East)


s&rclara_peakf3bgeol.jpg - Geologic map of the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains showing locations of mines, Fig 3b (East)


s&rclara_peakf3ageol.jpg - Geologic map of the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains showing locations of mines, Fig 3a (West)


Maps from: Spencer, J.E. et al., 1987

whipspenf1.jpg -  Geology map, Rawhide Mountains, Spencer, J.E. et al. Field-trip Guide, Fig 1. Showing stops C1 to C8

AIRPHOTOS AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

 

buckskin3topo.jpg  - Topo, Swansea - Bouse

Airphoto, Buckskin Montains - airphoto showing road from Bouse to Swansea

Airphoto,  Swansea Mine - Clara Peak area (UTM: 237 915, 3784 828)

Airphoto Swansea Mine area

Airphoto Clara Peak area off Lincoln Ranch R

REFERENCES

Spencer, J.E. and Reynolds, S.J. 1989a. Middle Tertiary Tectonics of Arizona and Adjacent Areas. in Geologic Evolution of Arizona: Tucson, Arizona Geol. Soc. Digest, v. 17, p. 539-574.

Spencer, J.E. et al. 1987. Field-trip Guide to Parts of the Harquahala, Granite Wash, Whipple, and Buckskin Mountains, West-Central Arizona and Southeastern California, p. 351-364.

Spencer, J. E. and Reynolds, S.J. 1989b. Introduction to the geology and mineral resources of the Bucksin and Rawhide Mountains, p. 1-10, in Spencer, J.E. and Reynolds, S.J., eds., Geology and mineral resources of the Bucksin and Rawhide Mountains, west-central Arizona: Arizona Geological Survey Bulletin 198.

Spencer, J.E. and Reynolds, S.J., 1989c. Tertiary structure, stratigraphy, and tectonics of the Buckskin Mountains, p. 103-167, in Spencer, J.E. and Reynolds, S.J., eds., Geology and mineral resources of the Bucksin and Rawhide Mountains, west-central Arizona: Arizona Geological Survey Bulletin 198,

PHOTOGRAPHS

ian_clara_1.jpg  -  Clara Peak    ian_clara_2.jpg - on the way up

060226_10_clareliz.JPG 08/04/2006
060226_11_claraunconf.JPG 08/04/2006
060226_12_clarased.JPG 08/04/2006
060226_13_swansea mine.JPG 09/04/2006

060226_14_swanseastud.JPG 09/04/2006
060226_15_swanseato NE.JPG 09/04/2006

The dreaded 'Jumping Cholla'        A Cholla field, Clara Peak      One way to travel!

  DAY 4 - Gold mines of the Senator Wash (Hess) and Picacho regions, north of Yuma
       Overnight - Squaw Lake, Senator Wash

Hess Gold Mine, Senator Wash (Laguna Dam Yuma)

 

      The main stops today will be the gabbros and diabases south of the Hess Mine, the Hess mine itself, and the Picacho Mine site (now closed).

GEOLOGY MAPS

hessgeolmap.jpg - after Morton, 1977, and Zang, 2005

AIRPHOTOS

hess_min_GRD.jpg - Hess mine is located in top left corner of the photo

Hess_minetbrext.jpg -   Hess Mine

PHOTOGRAPHS

ian_hess_calcrete.jpg - calcrete slab isolated on side of hill, Hess Mine region

ian_hess_gabbro - hummocky terrain composed of gabbro/diabase

ian_hess_debflow1 - elongated hill of debris flow material

CAMPSITE(s)

Hess_leave_hardtop.jpg - 'wild' campsite off paved road SW of Laguna Dam on the north side of the American Canal.

Alternatively, there is a convenient campground (no grass but showers and toilets) at Squaw Lake - hess_mine_grd.jpg

Hess Gold Mine, Senator Wash (Laguna Dam Yuma)

 

Topo, route from Winterhaven to the Picacho turnoff

Topo, showing exit from freeway 95

Airphoto showing exit from freeway 95

Airphoto showing exit from freeway 95 + GPS stations

Topo, Yuma to Picacho

Topo, Picacho camp site

Topo, Picacho Mine site

Airphoto Picacho Mine

PHOTOGRAPHS

Picachobreccia.jpg  -  Picacho Breccia

CAMPSITE

Airphot Picacho camp site

Topo, Picacho camp site

Topo, Picacho camp site

REFERENCE

Richard, Stephen M. and Spencer, Jon E. Geologic map of the Picacho mine area, southeastern California. Scale 1:10,000. Arizona Geological Survey open file report 96-30, pub. 1996. OCLC #37324717

Steven Losh, Dan Purvance, Ross Sherlock, E. Craig Jowett. 2005. Geologic and geochemical study of the Picacho gold mine, California: gold in a low-angle normal fault environment. Mineralium Deposita, 140, 137-155.

Abstract The Picacho gold deposit, located in southeasternmost California, is a low-grade gold deposit in a nearly flat-lying denudational fault of regional extent and probable Oligocene age. The deposit is hosted by intensely fractured and faulted Mesozoic leucogranite and by chloritic augen gneiss and schist, and is overlain unconformably and in fault contact by unmineralized late Oligocene Quechan volcanic rocks. The deposit is structurally characterized by normal and normal-oblique faults of low to high dip at shallow depths in the mine, merging downward with a synchronous, low-dipping
ore-stage extensional fault system (the Chocolate Mountains/Gatuna Fault) of probable Oligocene age in deeper portions of the deposit. The fault system was infiltrated during much of its active life by hot, dilute, highly exchanged meteoric water having temperatures of 170 –210 C, salinity <2 wt% NaCl equivalent and calculated d18Ofluid between -2.6/mil and +5.2/mil. This main-stage fluid precipitated quartz, pyrite, and specular hematite, accompanied by silicification and sericitization. Auriferous ore-stage pyrite was precipitated late in the fault evolution probably by mixing reducing ore fluid with relatively oxidized main-stage fluid during regional Oligocene extension on the Chocolate Mountains/ Gatuna Fault. The Picacho deposit is characterized
by a gold–arsenic–antimony geochemical signature consistent with bisulfide complexing of gold in reducing fluid, in contrast with typical denudation fault-hosted base-metal-rich deposits associated with high-salinity fluids elsewhere in the southwestern United States. The deposit is overprinted by Miocene normal faults having a wide range of dips. These post-ore faults are associated with red earthy hematite precipitation, pyrite oxidation,
and supergene enrichment of gold
.

    DAY 5 - Gold mines of the Cargo Muchacho and Chocolate Mountain regions

            Overnight - Senator Wash (Squaw Lake camp ground)

Aster Image of the Chocolate, Black, and Cargo-Muchachos Mountains, SE California

Why the Chocolate Mountains are called the Chocolate Mountains!!

GEOLOGY MAPS

Generalized geological map of SE California      Map Legend

choc4_5morton2GD.jpg - general map of the Chocolate Mountains; after Morton, 1977 and Zang, 2005

Cargo Muchachos

Aster Map of the Chocolate and Cargo M. region - Courtesy Dr. M. Pazner.

Location Map, Cargo Muchachos      Panorama to South from Vitrifax Hill -   1, 23

Geologic Map, regional, Owens (1992), Cargo Muchachos

Zones of Al-Silicate assemblages, Owens (1992), Cargo Muchachos

         Vitrifax Hill

Interpretive sections, Owens (1992) - Cargo Muchachos

Geologic map, Mica Talc Hill, Owens (1992) - Cargo Muchachos

Geologic domain map, coloured, Vitrifax-American Girl  - Gold Mines, Cargo Muchachos

 

             Map of foliation orientation, Vitrifax/American Girl, Owens (1992)  - Cargo Muchachos 

             Vitrifax-American Girl, jpg - Airphoto of Vitrix-American Girl area, Cargo muchachos

             Vitrifax-American Girl, jpg - Topographic map, Cargo Muchachos

             Volcanic cone, east side of Cargo Muchachos, UTM: 710 450, 3640 546

REFERENCES

Owens, E., 1992. Magmatism, Deformation and Mesothermal Metasomatism: Interpretation of Aluminosilicate Mineral Assemblages in the Cargo Muchacho Mountains, Southeastern California. Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

  DAY 6 - The Mesquite Gold Mine and other prospects of the Chocolate Mountain region
        Overnight - Wilderness camping NE of Mesquite

Mesquite Mine area

Airphoto, Mesquite Mine area,  Hwy 78

Airphoto, Mesquite Mine - mine is currently operational

Topo, Mesquite Mine area

The following images are reproduced from Durning, W.P. et al., 1998:  http://www.gis.usu.edu/docs/data/nasa_arc/nasa_arc97/SDSU/LaCuesta.pdf

LSATcolour composite, Colorado River region

Landsat map, east and west of the Colorado River

Landsat map, Chocolate, Black and Midway Mountains

Enlarged part of Landsat map, Mesquite Mine

SIRC radar map

Landsat TM ratio colour ratio map

mesqite_alterGD.jpg - gridded false colour image of the region north of the Mesquite showing potential argillic alteration zones; from Zang 2005
some localities are old mine sites located on fault or quart-vein related argillic alteration zones,  others are argillic hydrothermally
 altered felsic volcanic rocks;

REFERENCES

Durning, W.P. et al., 1998:  http://www.gis.usu.edu/docs/data/nasa_arc/nasa_arc97/SDSU/LaCuesta.pdf

PHOTOGRAPHS

Mesquitecamp.jpg - Mesquitecamp

camp1.jpg - Mesquite camp

orocopia1ryan.jpg - Orocopia Schist south of the Black Mountains

UMFrag.jpg - Fragment of fuchsite schist in Orocopia Schist

Blackmnt1ryan.jpg - Summit of Black Mountain

groupblackmntn.jpg - Group (2004) photo on Black Mountain

phil.jpg - Phil photographing photo #1003 out of 2010

ian_blacktopicacho.jpg - view from Black Mountain towards Picacho Peak (distant peak)

060228_18_mesqmine.jpg 10/04/2006 - pit at Mesquite Mine

 060228_19_mesquite.JPG 10/04/2006 - 'Grenville' like gneisses in the Mesquite mine
 060228_20_mesquite.JPG 10/04/2006 - folds in gneisses in the Mesquite mine
 060228_21_campmine.JPG 11/04/2006 - old mine sunk in vicinity of argillized rocks associated with a south dipping normal and a large NNW trending quartz-vein

CAMP SITE (wilderness, Mesquite area)

Mesqminecmpst.jpg  - off highway 78, north of the Mesquite Mine

Hess Gold Mine, Senator Wash (Laguna Dam Yuma)

 

AIRPHOTOS AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

Choc_MntsGD.jpg - gridded and georeferenced airphoto of the Indian Pass road area

      DAY 7 - Algodones Dunes, Salton Sea obsidians and geothermal plants,  

    Painted Canyon (San Andreas fault), Joshua Tree National Park                                       

        Overnight - White Tank, Joshua National Park and/or Calico Ghost Mine campground, Barstow,

         and/or, Mesquite Springs, Death Valley

 

          Campsites sites used during this field trip

Agodones Dunes

MAPS AND AIRPHOTOS

Generalized geological map of SE California      Map Legend

Topo map of Rock Hill / Obsidian Butte, Salton Sea, near Calipatria

Topo map of Rock Hill / Obsidian Butte, Salton Sea, near Calipatria (larger scale)

Airphoto of Rock Hill / Obsidian Butte, Salton Sea, near Calipatria

Goto:  http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/California/Hazards/Bulletin1847/table_holocene_volcanoes.html

Topo map Mecca Hills to Painted Canyon

Airphoto Mecca Hills to Painted Canyon

Airphoto, Painted Canyon, San Andreas fault

See Aster satellite image - road crossing dunes -> middle left of image; Mesquite mine -> top left of image

LINKS

http://desertusa.com/sandhills/sandhillsorg.html  The Imperial Sand Dunes, DesertUSA Newsletter

http://fgms.home.att.net/salton.htm  The Salton Sea by Richard Busch

http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/salton/SaltonSeaHomePage.html  The Salton Sea by Lisa Heizer

PHOTOGRAPHS

dunes.jpg - Algodones dunes, near Glamis

ian_dunes.jpg - Algodones dunes    ian_dune_Lynd.jpg - lost!!

paintcanryan.jpg - Dipping Cenozoic strata in the vicinity of the San Andreas fault, Painted Canyon, Mecca Hills

Saltonobsidryan.jpg - Obsidian dome, Rock Hill, east side of the Salton Sea

ian_salton2.jpg - outcrops of obsidian, Obsidian Butte

Wildlife

CAMPSITES

                 Google Earth image showing camp sites

                Whitetank camp ground, Joshua Tree National Park

whitetank1AP.jpg   - Airphoto, Whitetank camp ground, Joshua Park (no running water)

  

Topo Joshua Tree

Airphoto Joshua Tree 570 941, 3759 950

Airphoto, small scale, Joshua Tree

                      Calico Ghost  Town campsite, east of Barstow

                     Google Earth image showing location of the Calico Ghost Town campsite relative to the town of Barstow, California

                     BOWEN RANCH  (DEEP CREEK) OR JUNIPER FLATS HOTSPRING

                    Google Earth image of the 29 Palms, Deep Creek (Bowen Ranch) hotspring, Barstow area

 Topo, Hesperia

Airphoto, Hesperia

Topo, shows roads from Lucerne Valley to Juniper Flats

Topo, Juniper Flats hot springs

Topo, small scale, Juniper Flats hot springs

Airphoto Juniper Flats hot springs

Topo map with waypoints showing route from Lucerne to Bowen Ranch at UTM 485422, 3802595

Bowen Ranch Airphoto - Airphoto of the Deep Creek hot springs location, near Bowen Ranch, UTM 483711, 3799794

Bowen Ranch Airphoto - Airphoto of Bowen Ranch (parking location UTM 484854, 38019191)

PHOTOGRAPHS

joshgranryan.jpg - Joshua Tree National Park, Whitetank campsite

joshtree2ryan.jpg - Joshua Tree National Park, Whitetank campsite

bowenraryan.jpg - track down to Deep Creek hotsprings from Bowen Ranch

hotspringsryan.jpg  - Deep Creek hot spring

ian_joshnatbridge.jpg - natural bridge in granite

CAMPSITE

                  Mesquite Spring campground

death_valley.jpg - Google image of the Death Valley showing location of Natural Bridge turtlebacks and the Mesquite Spring camp ground

Mesquite Springs - Google image showing location of Ubehebe Crater and the Mesquite Spring camp ground

mesquitespryan.jpg

mesquitespingscampryan.jpg

 DAY 8 - Death Valley 'turtle backs' (Natural Bridge) and Ubehebe Crater.

     Overnight - Valley of Fire Nevada State Park (Alternative - Red Rock Canyon)

Natural Bridge Turtleback

MAPS

califgeolmap1.jpg - generalized map of the Death Valley - Panamint Valley region of the Great Basin

deathvalleygeolmap.jpg - taken from http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~millerm/DVscapes.pdf ; compiled by Miller and Wright, 2004

deathvalleyT&Wfig2.jpg - map and cross-section of the Virgin Springs area by Noble (1941), modified by Troxel and Wright, 1987

REFERENCES

Troxel, B.W. and Wright, L.A. 1987. Tertiary extensional features, Death Valley region, eastern California. GSA Centennial Field Guide - Cordilleran Section, p. 121-132.  Field guide to the Amargosa Chaos along Highway 1728 from Shoshone to Death Valley

PHOTOGRAPHS

ian_salt1.jpg - view of the salt flats of Death Valley and the snow covered Panamint range in the background
ian_salt2.jpg - view of Death Valley from Natural Bridge

060302_22_deatha1.JPG 12/04/2006 - view of the basement and 'chaos' rocks as represented in Fig. 4 of Troxel and Wright
060302_23_deatha2.JPG 12/04/2006 - view of the basement and 'chaos' rocks as represented in Fig. 4 of Troxel and Wright
060302_24_deatha3.JPG 12/04/2006 - view of the basement and 'chaos' rocks as represented in Fig. 4 of Troxel and Wright
060302_25_deatha4.JPG 12/04/2006 - view of the basement and 'chaos' rocks as represented in Fig. 5 of Troxel and Wright; viewed from point c in Fig 2
ian_virgsp.jpg - Virgin Spring chaos phase; locality a of Troxel and Wright, 1987
ian_armagouge.jpg - Breccia, Virgin Spring chaos phase; locality a of Troxel and Wright, 1987
060302_27_deathc.JPG 12/04/2006 - blocks of Tertiary fanglomerate in breccia of the Jubilee chaos phase; point c of Fig 2 of T and W, 1987
060302_28_deathc.JPG 12/04/2006 - blocks of basement mylonite in breccia of the Jubilee chaos phase; point c of Fig 2 of T and W, 1987

                     Detachment breccias of the Badwater region (Natural Bridge)
NatBridgeturtle.jpg Natural Bridge turtle-back, Death Valley
NatBridgeturtle2.jpg Natural Bridge turtle-back, Death Valley
060302_30_bad.JPG 13/04/2006 - remnants of Virgin Spring phase breccas overlying mylonitic gneiss
060302_29_bad.JPG 13/04/2006 - Virgin Spring phase breccia overlying mylonitic gneiss
060302_32a_badcarbbrec.JPG 13/04/2006 - close-up of the carbonate breccia of the Virgin Spring (?) phase
060302_32b_bad.JPG 13/04/2006  - carbonate breccia of the Virgin Spring (?) phase overlying altered (iron) retrograded mylonitic gneiss
060302_31_badklippen.JPG 13/04/2006 - remnant klippen of Virgin Spring (mid-left pinkish patch) and Jubilee (mid-right) 'chaos' material
060302_35b_badcongbrec.JPG 13/04/2006 - klippe of the Jubilee phase brecciated fanglomerates
060302_37a_badcongbrec.JPG 13/04/2006 - Jubilee phase breccias overlying altered mylonite
060302_37c_badcongbrec.JPG 13/04/2006 - close-up
060302_38_badchlormyl.JPG 13/04/2006 - highly chloritized mylonitized gneiss just below the detachment surface of the Badwater 'turtleback'
060302_33a_badalluvbrec.JPG 13/04/2006 - low-angle dipping alluvial fan deposits faulted in contact with lower-plate retrograde mylonitic gneiss
060302_33b_badalluvbrec.JPG 13/04/2006 - brecciated alluvial fan deposits in contact with the lower plate mylonitic gneiss
060302_33c_bad.JPG 13/04/2006 -  brecciated alluvial fan deposits

natbridgeryan.jpg - Natural Bridge, Death Valley

                     Ubehebe Phreatomagmatic Crater
Goto:  http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/California/Hazards/Bulletin1847/table_holocene_volcanoes.html

   

uheberyan.jpg  - Ubehebe Crater

uhebecrater1.jpg  - Ubehebe Crater

uhebecrater2.jpg  - Ubehebe Crater

scottyscastle.jpg Scottys Castle

CAMP SITE

         Valley of Fire, 50 km NE of Las Vegas

voffirecampryan.jpg  - Valley of Fire

vfireAP.jpg - Airphoto of the Valley of Fire State campsite

vfiretopo.jpg - topo map of the Valley of Fire region

         OR, Red Rock Canyon, west of Las Vegas

Topo, showing roads from Las Vegas to Red Rock Canyon

Topo, exit from hwy 95 to Charleston Boulevard

Topo, intersection of hwy 95 and hwy 15 & Charleston Boulevard

 Airphoto of Red Rock Canyon region

                                                                           DAY 8 Fri Feb 27 04 - Las Vegas

lasvegryan.jpg -        A final touch of Gold!!

DAY 9 Sat Feb 28 04 - Flight out of Vegas, arrive London mid-day.

          NOTES: GEOLOGY, WEB LINKS, GENERAL REFERENCES

University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Dept of Geoscience

4505 Maryland Parkway Box 454010 Las Vegas, NV 89154-4010 Telephone: (702) 895-3262  E-Mail: geodept@nevada.edu

http://www.unlv.edu/Campus_Map/  = Campus Map - Lily Fong Geoscience Building is # 38

Campus is north of Airport, on east end of Harmon St, west of the Rotunda; parking off west side of Maryland Parkway (N-S st); access to parking at Harmon St (E-W street)

Arizona State Parks

http://www.pr.state.az.us/Parks/parkhtml/buckskin.html

Buckskin Mountain State Park is located on Arizona Highway 95, about 12 miles north of Parker. The River Island unit is one mile north of Buckskin Mountain State Park.

 

Arizona Geology

http://www-glg.la.asu.edu/~sreynolds/home.htm - home page of Stephen J. Reynolds; first-class web site containing numerous color photographs, 3D perspectives, and information about the Geology of Arizona, Landscapes of the Southwest, structural geology, science-education reform, and using Bryce5 to illustrate geology.

Maps of Arizona

http://www.azgs.state.az.us/about.htm

Arizona Geological Survey publications

 

http://www-glg.la.asu.edu/%7Esreynolds/azgeomap/azgeomap_home.htm

Geological Map of Arizona, Steve Reynolds

 

http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~rdorsey/Detach.html

Map of Whipple Mountains, archived as Whipplemap.jpg in Cargo_Muchaco... file

 

http://www.colorado.edu/geolsci/courses/GEOL3120/metamorphiccomplexes.pdf

Geology3120 - Metamorphic Core Complexes

Site has maps and photos of the Whipple Mountain and Buckskin-Rawhide detachments.

Whipple Mountains geologic map copied as whipplemap2.jpg in Cargo_Muchacho... file

 

http://www.lowell.edu/users/tweedr/thes_ch5.html no maps

Spencer, J.E., and Reynolds, S.J., 1987, Geologic map of the Swansea-Copper Penny area, central Buckskin Mountains, west-central Arizona: Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology Open-file Report 87-2, 10 p., scale 1:12,000.

 

Field Guides/Map of California

 

http://geology.about.com/library/bl/maps/calmap.jpg

Generalized geological map of California, source site USGS

 

http://geology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.consrv.ca.gov/cgs/information/geologic%5Fmapping/maps/geology/big%5Fgeo1.pdf

Generalized geological map of California, source site California Geological Survey

 

http://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs/geotour/

The California Geotour - An Index to Online Geologic Field Trip Guides of California

 

http://scamp.wr.usgs.gov/scamp/html/gm.html

Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP)

 

 

Howard, K.A., Nielson, J.E., Wilshire, H.G., Nakata, J.K., Goodge, J.W., Reneau, S.L., John, B.E., and Hansen, V.L., 2000, Geologic Map of the Mohave Mountains, western Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2308, 1:48,000, with explanation.

John, B.E., 1987, Geologic map of the Chemehuevi Mountains area, San Bernardino County, California, and Mohave County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-666, (l:24, 000 with explanation).

Miller, D.M., John, B.E., Antweiler, J.C., Simpson, R.W., Hoover, D.B., Raines, G.L., and Kreidler, T.J., 1983, Mineral resource potential of the Chemehuevi Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-310), San Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Misc. Field Investigations Map MF-1584A (l:48,000).
 

LINKS

 

http://www.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/modalldep.cgi?cmd+CA

USGS California depository libraries

Federal and state government publications also are made available to the public at "depository libraries" across the country. A complete list of depository libraries is available. Many of these libraries are "selected" depositories and may not contain earth science listings. Libraries listed as "Regional" received all federal publications distributed by the Superintendent of Documents and will have received USGS publications.

 

http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/ngmdb/ngm_SMsearch.html

USGS map index

 

http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/ngmdb/ngmdb_home.html

National Geologic Map Database

 

http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/

USGS map database

 

http://geology.wr.usgs.gov/docs/stateinfo/CA.html

Geologic information about California

 

http://rockyweb.cr.usgs.gov/acis-bin/choosebylocation.pl?statechoice=California

Map retailers california

 

http://ask.usgs.gov/products.html

usgs maps

 

http://www.gis.usu.edu/docs/data/nasa_arc/nasa_arc97/SDSU/LaCuesta.pdf

Integrated Use of Remote Sensing and GIS for Mineral Exploration: A Project of the NASA Affiliated Research Center at San Diego State University

 

http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/fieldtrips/calico/calico.htm

The Calico Mining district - silver barite

 

http://gateway.library.uiuc.edu/gex/bibs/geol315-415ariz.html

UIUC Geology course 315/415 Field Trip Arizona and Southern California

 

http://www.johnmartin.com/earthquakes/eqsafs/safs_361.htm

Transverse Ranges and the Salton Sea

 

http://earthview.sdsu.edu/trees/oroword.html

Orocopia Mountains Detachment System

 

http://earthview.sdsu.edu/trees/OROTOUR.html

TM image of the Orocopia Mountains east of the Salton Sea

 

http://seis.natsci.csulb.edu/deptweb/SkinnyCalSites/TrnsverseRng/SanGabriels/SanGablOview2.html

Geological overviews of the SAN GABRIEL MOUNTAINS

Search of National Geologic Map database for "California" "Imperial" county

       

Scale larger (more detail) than 1:24,000

 

Hadley, J.B. (valid link), 1942, Manganese deposits in the Paymaster mining
   district, Imperial County, California: U.S. Geological
   Survey, Bulletin 931-S, scale 1:6000.
Robinson, P.T. and Elders, W.A., 1976, Quaternary volcanism in
   the Salton Sea geothermal field, Imperial Valley, California:
   Geological Society of America, Bulletin v.87, n.3, p.347,
   scale 1:10000.

Scale 1:24,000

 

Clark, M.M., 1984, Map showing recently active breaks along
   the San Andreas fault and associated faults between Salton
   Sea and Whitewater River-Mission Creek, California: U.S.
   Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map
   I-1483, scale 1:24000.
Olmsted, F.H., 1972, Geologic map of the Laguna Dam 7.5-minute
   quadrangle, Arizona and California: U.S. Geological Survey,
   Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1014, scale 1:24000.
Sharp, R.V., 1972, Map showing recently active breaks along
   the San Jacinto fault zone between the San Bernardino area
   and Borrego Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey,
   Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-675, scale
   1:24000.
Sharp, R.V., 1977, Holocene traces of the Imperial fault in
   south-central Imperial County, California: U.S. Geological
   Survey, Open-File Report OF-77-815, scale 1:24000.
Smith, D.B., Berger, B.R., Tosdal, R.M., Sherrod, D.R., Raines,
   G.L., Griscom, Andrew, Helferty, M.G., Rumsey, C.M., and
   McMahan, A.B., 1987, Mineral resources of the Indian Pass
   and Picacho Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Imperial County,
   California: U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 1711-A, scale
   1:24000.

Scale between 1:24,000 and 1:100,000

 

Haxel, G.B., Jacobson, C.E., Richard, S.M., Tosdal, R.M., and
   Grubensky, M.J., 2002, The Orocopia Schist in southwest
   Arizona: Early Tertiary oceanic rocks trapped or transported
   far inland: Geological Society of America, Special Paper
   365, p. 99, scale 1:45000.
Crowe, B.M., 1978, Cenozoic volcanic geology and probable age
   of inception of basin-range faulting in the southeasternmost
   Chocolate Mountains, California: Geological Society of
   America, Bulletin v.89, n.2, p.251, scale 1:83000.
Todd, V.R., Detra, D.E., Kilburn, J.E., Griscom, Andrew, Kruse,
   F.A., and Campbell, H.W., 1987, Mineral resources of the
   Fish Creek Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Imperial County,
   California: U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 1711-C, scale
   1:97000.

Scale between 1:100,000 and 1:500,000

 

Babcock, E.A., 1974, Geology of the northeast margin of the
   Salton trough, Salton Sea, California: Geological Society
   of America, Bulletin v.85, n.2, p.321, scale 1:111000.
Bartholomew, M.J., 1970, San Jacinto fault zone in the northern
   Imperial Valley, California: Geological Society of America,
   Bulletin v.81, n.10, p.3161, scale 1:113000.
Morton, P.K., 1977, Geology and mineral resources of Imperial
   County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology,
   County Report 7, scale 1:125000.
Jennings, C.W., 1967, Geologic map of California : Salton Sea
   sheet: California Division of Mines and Geology, scale
   1:250000.
Mattick, R.E., Olmsted, F.H., and Zohdy, A.A.R., 1973, Geophysical
   studies in the Yuma area, Arizona and California: U.S.
   Geological Survey, Professional Paper 726-D, scale 1:250000.
Rogers, T.H., 1965, Geologic map of California : Santa Ana
   sheet: California Division of Mines and Geology, scale
   1:250000.
Smith, G.I. and Goodfellow, Robert, 1999, Transverse and
   longitudinal geologic cross-sections across parts of southeast
   California: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report OF-93-387,
   scale 1:250000.
Strand, R.G., 1962, Geologic map of California : San Diego-El
   Centro sheet: California Division of Mines and Geology,
   scale 1:250000.
 




http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/MapProgress/MapProgress_home.html

The "Geologic Mapping in Progress" database lists areas that are now being mapped, and describes who to contact for more information.

 

http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/MapProgress/24k_01/24k_01.htm

Geologic Mapping in Progress - select a state

 

http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/MapProgress/100k_01/100k_01.htm

Select a state -- areas being mapped are in blue

 

http://ncgmp.usgs.gov/statemap/CA03.pdf

SUMMARY OF STATEMAP GEOLOGIC MAPPING PROGRAM IN CALIFORNIA

 

USGS geologic map data model activities are changing over to http://nadm-geo.org

The USGS is adding a Cartographic Resources page (map templates, etc) –It’s still under construction, but will be officially added to the project site shortly http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Info/cartores/

The standards and guidelines page is at http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Info/standards/

and the search page for DMT papers is at  http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/dmt/search.html

 

DIGITAL MAPS

 

Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., Wentworth, C.M., Jennings, C.W., Strand, R.G., and Rogers,

T.H., 2000, GIS data for the geologic map of California: California Division of Mines and Geology, CD 2000-007, scale

1:750000.

Vigil, J.F., Pike, R.J., and Howell, D.G., 2000, A tapestry of time and terrain: U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Investigations

Series Map I-2720, scale 1:1350000.

Rea, Alan and Cederstrand, J.R., 1994, GCIP reference data set (GREDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report OF-94-388,

scale 1:2500000.

Schruben, Paul G., Arndt, Raymond E., and Bawiec, Walter J., 1994, Geology of the Conterminous United States at 1:2,500,000

Scale -- A Digital Representation of the 1974 P.B. King and H.M. Beikman Map: U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Data Series

DDS-11, scale 1:2500000.

Barton, K.E., Howell, D.G., and Vigil, J.F., 2003, The North America tapestry of time and terrain: U.S. Geological Survey,

Geologic Investigations Series Map I-2781, scale 1:8000000

Bedford, D.R., Ludington, Steve, Nutt, C.M., Stone, P.A., Miller, D.M., Miller, R.J.Wagner, D.L., and Saucedo, G.J., 2003,

: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report OF-03-135. Geologic database for the digital geology of California, Nevada, and Utah - an application of the North American data

model

 

GENERAL REFERENCES

 

1980. Dickey, D.D., Carr, W.J., and Bull, W.B. 1980 Geologic map of the Parker NW, Parker, and parts of the Whipple Mountains SW and Whipple Wash quadrangles, California and Arizona USGS I-1124 24

 

1986. Structural evolution of the Whipple and South Mountains shear zones, southwestern United States: Geology, v. 14, p. 7-10 (G. A. Davis, G. S. Lister, and S. J. Reynolds).

 

1987. Field trip guide to parts of the Harquahala, Granite Wash, Whipple and Buckskin Mountains, west-central Arizona and southeastern California, p. 351-364 in Geological diversity of Arizona and its margins: excursions to choice areas (Davis, G. H., and VandenDolde, E. M., Eds.): Ariz. Bur. Geology and Min. Technology Special Paper 5, 422 p. (J. E. Spencer, S. J. Reynolds, J. L. Anderson, G. A. Davis, S. E. Laubach, S. M. Richard, and Stephen Marshak).

 

1988. Rapid upward transport of mid-crustal mylonitic gneisses in the footwall of a Miocene detachment fault, Whipple Mountains, southeastern California: Geologische Rundschau, v. 77, no. 1, p. 191-209.

 

1989. The origin of metamorphic core complexes and detachment faults formed during Tertiary continental extension in the northern Colorado River region, U.S.A.: Jour. Struct. Geol., v. 11, p. 65-95. (G. S. Lister and G. A. Davis).

 

1989. Seismic reflectivity of the Whipple Mountain shear zone in southern California, Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 94, p. 2985-3005. (Chi-Yuen Wang, D. A. Okaya, Charles Ruppert, G. A. Davis, Tie-Shuan Guo, Zengqiu Zhong, and Hans-Rufolf Wenk).

 

1989. Terry Shackelford: a retrospective view, p. 11-14 in Geology and mineral resources of the Buckskin and Rawhide Mountains, west-central Arizona (Spencer, J. E., and Reynolds, S. J., eds.): Arizona Geological Survey Bulletin 198 (Shackelford Volume), 279 p.

 

1991. Low-angle normal faulting and rapid uplift of mid-crustal rocks in the Whipple Mountains metamorphic core complex, southeastern California: discussion and field guide, p. 417-446 in Geological excursions in southern California and Mexico (Walawender, M. J., and Hanan, B. B., eds.), Dept. of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University, 515 p. (G. A. Davis, and J. L. Anderson)

Eric Frost - important site on crustal extension in SE California

Eric Frost - http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/people/faculty/frost/pubs.html

* Durning, Perry W., Polis, Stephen R., Frost, Eric G., and Kaiser, John V., 1998, Integrated use of remote sensing and GIS for mineral Exploration: NASA Affiliated Research Center at San Diego State University, Final Report, 25p.

* Rogers, K., Frost, E., Augustine, E., Barsumian, B., Borron, S., Klimcsak, E., and O'Connor, T., 1998, Mid-Tertiary crustal extension in the offshore California Borderlands as demonstrated by major crustal tilt blocks from industry seismic profiles, Cordilleran Section of Amer. Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists, p.39-40.

* Frost, E.G., Fattahipour, M., and Robinson, K.L., 1996, Neogene detachment and strike-slip faulting in the Salton Trough region and their geometric and genetic interrelationships, in P.L. Abbott and J.D. Cooper, eds., Amer. Assoc. of Pet. Geol. Nat. Fieldguide 73, p.263-276.

* Frost, E.G. and Heidrick, T.L., 1996, Three-dimensional structural geometries of the Colorado River extensional terrane and their regional exploration implications, in Rehrig, W.A., Low-angle tectonic features of the southwestern United States and their influence on mineral Resources, Assoc. of Economic Geologists, p.1-64.

* Frost, E.G., Suitt, S., and Fattahipour, M., 1996, Emerging perspectives of the Salton Trough region with an emphasis on extensional faulting and its implications for later San Andreas deformation, in P.L. Abbott and D.C. Seymour, eds., Sturzstroms and detachment faults, South Coast Geological Society, p.81-121.

* Frost, E.G., Suitt, S., and Fattahipour, M., 1996, Emerging perspectives of the Salton Trough region with an emphasis on extensional faulting and its implications for later San Andreas deformation: in P.L. Abbott and D.C. Seymour, eds., Sturzstroms and detachment faults, South Coast Geological Society, p.81-121.

* Frost, E.G., Fattahipour, M., and Robinson, K.L., 1996, Neogene detachment and strike-slip faulting in the Salton Trough region and their geometric and genetic interrelationships, in P.L. Abbott and J.D. Cooper, eds., Amer. Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists National Fieldguide 73, p.263-276.

* Robinson, K.L., and Frost, E.G., 1996, Orocopia Mountains detachment system, in P.L. Abbott and J.D. Cooper, eds., Amer. Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists National Fieldguide 73, p.277-284.

* Frost, E.G., and Heidrick, T.L., 1996, Three-dimensional structural geometries of the Colorado River extensional terrane and their regional exploration implications, in Rehrig, W.A., Low-angle tectonic features of the southwestern United States and their influence on mineral resources, Assoc. of Economic Geologists, p.1-64.

* Frost, E.G., Heizer, L.A., Blom, R.G., and Crippen, R.E., 1996, The Western Salton Trough detachment system, in F. V. Corona, ed., The San Andreas Fault System: Identification of wrench-fault assemblages and their associated hydrocarbon traps, Amer. Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists National Fieldguide, p.163-178.

* Robinson, K., and Frost, E.G., Extension within the San Joaquin Hills and its comparison to the Orocopia Mountains, submitted to Geological Society of America Special Paper on Extension in Coastal California, 8-94.

* Frost, E.G., and Heidrick, T.L., Structural framework of crustal extension in the Colorado River region as a template for extension in the California coastal region, submitted to Geological Society of America Special Paper on Extension in Coastal California, 11-94.

* Barstow, Daniel, and Frost, Eric, 1995, Do we really understand what w see? Cognitive issues in remote sensing from the perspective of a scientist and an educator, Int. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 4p.

* Frost, E.G., Heizer, Lisa A., Blom, Ron, and Crippen, Ron, 1993, The Western Salton Trough Detachment System, ERIM Fieldguide to Remote Sensing of Strike-Slip Fault Systems, p.186-198.

* Pridmore, Cindy, and Frost, Eric, 1992, California's Extended Past, California Geology, v.45, p.3-17.

* Frost, E.G., D.A. Okaya, T.V. McEvilly, E.C. Hauser, G.S. Galvan, J. McCarthy, G.S. Fuis, C.M. Conway, R.G. Blom, and T.L. Heidrick, Crustal transect: Colorado Plateau - Detachment terrane - Salton Trough, in Geologic diversity of Arizona and its margins: excursions to choice areas, edited by G.H. Davis and E.M. VandenDolder, Ariz. Bur. Geol. Special Paper 5, 398-422, 1987.

* Frost, E.G., and S.N. Watowich, The Mesquite and Picacho Gold Mines: epithermal mineralization localized within Tertiary extensional deformation, in Geologic diversity of Arizona and its margins: excursions to choice areas, edited by G.H. Davis and E.M. VandenDolder, Ariz. Bur. Geol. Special Paper 5, 324-336, 1987. *

 * Henyey, T.E., D.A. Okaya, E.G. Frost, and T.V. McEvilly, CALCRUST (1985) seismic reflection survey, Whipple Mountains detachment terrane, California: an overview, Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 89, 111-118, 1987.

Guidebooks

* Heidrick, T.L., and Frost, E.G., 1994, Extensional structures in the lower Colorado River area, geological field guide: Chevron structural geology school on extension and fielduide, Revised Version with fieldguide on strike-slip faulting.

* Frost, E.G., and D.M. Frost, Crustal habitat of precious metal mineralization within the extended terrane of southern California and western Arizona, in The California Desert Mineral Symposium Compendium, U. S. Bureau of Land Management, Special Publication, 135-137, 1989.

* Dokka, R.K., M. McCurry, M.O. Woodburne, E.G. Frost, and D.A. Okaya, A field guide to the Cenozoic crustal structure of the Mojave Desert, in this extended land - geologic journeys in the southern Basin and Range, Weide, D.L., and Faber, M.L., eds., Geol. Soc. Am. Guidebook, 21-44, 1988.

* Drobeck, P.A., F.L. Hillemeyer, E.G. Frost, and G.S. Liebler, The Picacho mine: A gold mineralized detachment in southeastern California, Ariz. Geol. Digest, 16, 187-221, 1986.

* Frost, E.G., P. Drobeck, and B. Hillemeyer, Geologic setting of gold and silver mineralization in southeastern California and southwestern Arizona, Geol. Soc. Am., Guidebook, 70-119, 1986.

* Morris, R.S., E.G. Frost, and D.A. Okaya, Preliminary seismic reflection interpretation of the overprint of Tertiary detachment faulting on the Orocopia Schist-Chocolate Mountains thrust system, Milpitas Wash area of southeastern California, Geol. Soc. Am., Guidebook, 122-126, 1986.

Videos

* Simmons, G.B., Crippen, R.E., Blom, R.G., Okaya, D.A., Hussey, K.J., Beratan, K.K., and Frost, E.G., From Space to the Moho, Visualization of Landsat Thematic Mapper, digital elevation, and seismic profile data of Lake Havasu regional detachment terranes, California and Arizona, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, video AVC-077-89C1D, 5 min., 45 sec, (1989, revised, 1991).

Geologic database for the digital geology of California, Nevada, and Utah - an application of the North American data

Olmsted, F.H., 1972, Geologic map of the Laguna Dam 7.5-minute quadrangle, Arizona and California: U.S. Geological Survey,

Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1014, scale 1:24000.

Smith, D.B., Berger, B.R., Tosdal, R.M., Sherrod, D.R., Raines, G.L., Griscom, Andrew, Helferty, M.G., Rumsey, C.M., and

McMahan, A.B., 1987, Mineral resources of the Indian Pass and Picacho Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Imperial County,

California: U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 1711-A, scale 1:24000.

Morton, P.K., 1977, Geology and mineral resources of Imperial County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology,

County Report 7, scale 1:125000.

Mattick, R.E., Olmsted, F.H., and Zohdy, A.A.R., 1973, Geophysical studies in the Yuma area, Arizona and California: U.S.

Geological Survey, Professional Paper 726-D, scale 1:250000.

Schell, B.A. and Wilson, K.L., 1982, Regional neotectonic analysis of the Sonoran Desert: U.S. Geological Survey,

Open-File Report OF-82-57, scale 1:500000.

Smith, M.B., 1964, Map showing distribution and configuration of basement rocks in California: U.S. Geological Survey,

Oil and Gas Investigations Map OM-215, scale 1:500000.

Powell, R.E., 1993, Balanced palinspastic reconstruction of pre-late Cenozoic paleogeography, southern California: geologic

and kinematic constraints on evolution of the San Andreas fault system: Geological Society of America, Memoir 178,

Chapter 1, scale 1:740000.

Blake, M.C., Howell, D.G., and Jones, D.L., 1982, Preliminary tectonostratigraphic terrane map of California: U.S. Geological

Survey, Open-File Report OF-82-593, scale 1:750000.

Castle, R.O., Elliot, M.R., Church, J.P., and Wood, S.H., 1984, The evolution of the southern California uplift, 1955 through

1976: U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1342, scale 1:750000.

Jennings, C.W., Strand, R.G., Rogers, T.H., Boylan, R.T., Moar, R.R., and Switzer, R.A., 1977, Geologic map of California:

California Division of Mines and Geology, Geologic Data Map 2, scale 1:750000.

Albers, J.P. and Fraticelli, L.A., 1984, Preliminary mineral resources assessment map of California: U.S. Geological

Survey, Mineral Investigations Resources Map MR-88, scale 1:1000000.

Vigil, J.F., Pike, R.J., and Howell, D.G., 2000, A tapestry of time and terrain: U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Investigations

Series Map I-2720, scale 1:1350000.

Feray, D.E., Oetking, Philip, and Renfro, H.B., 1968, Geological highway map of the Pacific Southwest region: California,

Nevada: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, United States Geological Highway Map Series 3, scale 1:1900800.

Barbat, W.F., 1971, Megatectonics of the Coast Ranges, California: Geological Society of America, Bulletin v.82, n.6, p.1541,

scale 1:2000000.

Bayer, K.C., 1983, Generalized structural, lithologic, and physiographic provinces in the fold and thrust belts of the

United States: exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey, scale 1:2500000.

Crowe, B.M., 1978, Cenozoic volcanic geology and probable age of inception of basin-range faulting in the southeasternmost

Chocolate Mountains, California: Geological Society of America, Bulletin v.89, n.2, p.251, scale 1:83000.

 

Other geological excursions:

The Southern Appalachians (in preparation)  

Mineral deposits in the context of the accretionary history of Virginia, Tenessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Maryland.

 

   Geology of the Adirondacks, New York State, Oct. 2004    

The Meso-Protoerozoic Grenvillian geologic history of the Adirondacks region of New York State

 

SEG Field Trip to Cuba 1998